Dog, Dog, Dog…Where are we going?

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Complacency has its charms. 

Waiting,

For dog years and weight gain.

To create a desired easy-going dog,

Can kinda work.

Sometimes.

 

I can’t just wait for a surprise destiny.

Challenges.

Should I or should I not face.

To create the fulfilled potential of a dog partnership.

Consistently building.

Always.

 

Where are we, dog and me, going?

Planning.

Knowing the direction, avoiding false paths.

To create something more than ever before.

Resiliency and tenacity.

Partners.

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Guster Longjaws (1 yr old) being silly with his leash.

 

What about you? Have you thought it through? Did any of your dogs do anything special? Will this current dog be more than those prior pooches?

There are as many reasons for having dogs as there are people with dogs. There are many reasons why having a dog(s) can make you happy. Think carefully … the way it makes you feel, the friends you meet, how you feel, the achievements, the competition, how happy your dog is to do certain things and where you get to go. Write them all down and prioritize everything.

Now make a list of all the things that bother you about having a dog. Write down the things you dislike because they are scary, or things that are just a pain, or that don’t make any sense to you, or that really tick you off. Write down anything that bothers you about the sport you would like to be involved in (are involved in). Then rank those in the same manner, from the worst to the least offensive.

Now (with the two lists) you have a mini summary of the pros and cons of your dog-owning relationship. Now it is time to determine the connections.

Would you hop in a car and drive around aimlessly for years and years without a final destination in mind, without so much as a GPS to get there? That is absolutely what many people do in getting a dog. They have not established a dream and have not established any goals (roadmap).

So what do you really like about doing with your dog? Can you think about an aspect that you could pursue to maximize the pleasurable experiences while minimizing your dislikes? Would the challenge of competition, the peace of hiking, the camaraderie of team sports, or something you hadn’t even considered before satisfy those cravings?

Once you have sharpened your focus on where you want to go, nothing is insurmountable. It just takes real love of where you are headed, a motivation to get there, and some planning for the steps that will lead you to your goal. Take some time, sit down and find your direction.

Reinforcement Gone WRONG

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Often a chain of actions grows a behavior. Barking, whining, jumping up, mouthing, excitement at the doors … are very commonly increased by chained events and unfortunately most of the time the person doesn’t realize that they are growing the behavior instead of reducing it.

So if your dog is doing something you don’t particularly like and you don’t know why it’s getting worse. Take a look back. Usually two steps of actions back and you then will spot the behavior/reinforcement cycle.

What then? Put more steps into the cycle or take out a step right before or after the dog’s usual action. Example: in the above cycle the dog barked, woke the person up, then got affection or maybe play time outside. Options: 1. ignore barking (earplugs) and wait until it completely stops before getting out of bed … stay neutral (non-reinforcing) until several preferred things have been offered by the dog, or 2. Schedule wake up time earlier, before dog would usually start to bark or whine, then reinforce quiet behavior immediately, or 3. dog barks, you wake up and go to bathroom and dog follows quietly and lays down (no speaking), you go to other room and dog is asked to do a series of behaviors … sit, down, do trick … then gets rewarded with pets and praise (with this, you may be just growing a longer chain, but usually not).

In our house, Jazzie goes over by the stairs and leans against the wall when she wishes to go outside. Or if I’m using the computer, she puts her head on my thigh and waits. I see her there or feel her chin, get up and go outside with her and play flying disk games. Lately she’s been increasing her requests. Why? Because the reinforcement of the game. Why was I playing the game … because it’s winter and I have to get dressed to go outside and so for efficiency sake potty plus game.

Since I don’t want excessive requests … I let her out, said nothing, waited for her to go potty and turned around and came back inside. She didn’t need to go potty, so it was just a game request.

I like her go outside reminders, because sometimes I can get overly involved in reading or work, but I don’t want to have to let her out too frequently. So we just won’t play her favorite games outside unless I’m the one who initiated the trip outdoors. I expect this will reduce her requests. We’ll see.

Have you discovered unintended behavior chains?

 

 

Different ways to teach things to dogs

 

DSCN1091.JPGIf, as I read in a summary of one study, 90% of the dogs in America know the command for sit and that’s about it. Then I’m not sure why we’re having such a hoopla about training methodology. It would seem, if that’s the case, then whatever is being used isn’t working very well as far as expanding communication. I do hope that at least 90% of dogs are house-trained? Unfortunately a lot of the dogs I met in the shelter system weren’t, but then they didn’t seem to know ‘sit’ either.

Below is a listing of the methodologies I’ve used. The first one is what I was initially trained to do and got quite good at … then when I found out how much better the others worked I was incredibly irritated that I had been introduced to and worked so hard to get good at a method I needed, for the most part, to discard. Maybe that’s why there is so much hoopla. Even though I was good at this first method, the dogs I trained tended to want to quit when we got to the upper levels – I assume they didn’t want to work through any more negatives. The other methods have not had that as a barrier. But I have noticed more hijinx, more fun and less ‘stay there and don’t do anything.’

Mostly I use shaping now, although I’m wondering how much of the shaping works because my dogs understand my minor cues in looking at or adjusting my body to influence their choices … so maybe some sort of mimic/mirroring is occurring. I have also rewarded handling choices, like collar grabs, enough to mostly make them not negative, so some of the first kind of training has morphed into a more positive vein.

1. Training Strategy: Physical placement  – Say “SIT” Pull up on leash (probably with training collar on), optional push down on rear. Release pressure when they comply. Praise for compliance. Type: Negative Reinforcement (increasing behavior by removing something bad (neck pressure) or sometimes positive (meaning ‘added’) punishment because timing is poor and pressure doesn’t get released. Side-effects: Some people like the immediate ‘making them do it’, which increases its use as a technique. Some dogs find this form of training quite unpleasant and stressful, and because the dog doesn’t enjoy the training, after while the handler doesn’t enjoy it either. The use of pressure must be faded as a cue – dogs need to learn to do the action without the pressure, but the risk is the dog continues to need a pressure prompt and the trainer ends up getting harsher and harsher in their efforts to make the dog do what they say. This is a very traditional method, so there are many older references to it. This is where most of the electronic training devices fit in – so there is lots of marketing for this strategy. Dogs tend to become phlegmatic with this method or ratchet up to wildness if told no, often anxious about training or new training, wise to the usual tools used and unwilling to try new things.

2. Training Strategy:  Luring: Show dog reward (or otherwise encourage their attention) and use it to get the body position desired, wait for them to, for example  – sit, because looking up the reward is easier while sitting. Reward with treat, or toy for sitting. Do luring only initially (say less than 10 times), then start waiting for the desired response and reward after it occurs. When you can predict the sit 90% of the time, then add the verbal cue, “Sit”. Type: Positive Reinforcement (increasing behavior by providing reward for it) Side-effects: Dog becomes much more attentive and interested when training is offered. Improves relationship, and increases drive to learn. Creates consistent responses. If luring is used after the behavior is established (for example: food presented first, instead of after the dog offers a response), then the dog may learn to wait it out for a better or bigger offer. Thereby reversing the training process and shaping the owner’s response. This becomes the main complaint about this kind of training – lack of fading the lure…which is unfortunately the owner’s misunderstanding about how to use a reward. Another risk is over-use of treats and subsequent obesity.

3. Training strategy: Shaping.  Set up environment for likely response (for example be close to something, recently handle something, have a prior training prompt or value on something) and when dog looks at or goes toward or steps on or sits on or touches the new thing – reward. Progressively rewarding behaviors that are getting closer to what you want is called “shaping.” This is a build-a-behavior from the beginning (or from a foundation of other behaviors already built) process where the dog is offering actions and only getting rewarded for those that match the steps to what is wanted by the trainer. The dog tries stuff and the trainer responds by marking the right or closer to right behaviors. Type: positive reward and negative punishment (which means the dog gets nothing he wants for the wrong actions). Side-effects: Dog becomes very knowledgeable about what the criteria are for completing a task. This system is quite motivating when done well. The biggest issue with this is beginning trainers not knowing the progression of steps and so not rewarding early enough to keep the dog interested in trying to figure out what is wanted. Also dogs can become very interested in offering novel behaviors, which depending on what you want, may be undesirable.

4. Training strategy: Capturing. Observe and capture it. Most of the things we want on verbal or signal control are things the dog does in general life. If we watch we can mark and reward the behaviors we like as the dog does them. Unfortunately this strategy is most often used in reverse of the above, marking the behaviors that are not desired and punishing them. Side-effects: If using rewards and capturing this is great for identifying calm behaviors. It can be clear, but difficult to repeat (especially quick actions that are cute or funny) because observation is the only set up. If used alone as system – to mark and punish unwanted behaviors – this method tends to produce  anxious, hyper-active, unsure, disinterested dogs.

5. Training strategy: Mimic/copy what I do. Person does something and dog copies it for a reward. If dog is watching and realizes how it works then this can be a very fast way to train. This is often seen in ‘give me your paw,’ person puts hand out and dog may do the same, or lie down – person lays down and so does dog and jumping … there are actually quite a few things that dogs will often copy in action. Side-effects: Some things you don’t want copied by the dog.  …I have not used this method as a stand-alone, so I’m not a good judge of what could be accomplished.

What should you do? Well it depends on you and your dog. Back when the first method I listed was typically the only method used in training police dogs, seeing eye dogs, war dogs … many of these dogs washed out. The change to using more positive reward systems significantly increased the success rate of the programs and increased the working-span of the dogs. But I know that people like to ‘make their dogs’ … whatever and in many ways that is easiest, not the most effective or efficient, but easiest for people to understand. So if you need easiest, go for it. I’ll still be around when it doesn’t work for you. DSCN0944

Pinch Me A.K.A. Prong Me

Tonight I was at a class where the instructor indicated that the use of the prong collar produced feel good hormones … and that it didn’t cause pain… my thought was – you must be kidding! With that reasoning the dogs would want it to be tightened again and again … and well then it wouldn’t work would it. As far as dog neck anatomy, the back of their neck has thicker skin, looser skin and more fat pad than a human, but the front of it is very similar and that’s mostly where the prongs work. And no, I won’t be using one on Siggy … no way.

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During a recent Facebook discussion, it was pointed out that I had never worn a prong collar.  As such, I would  have no idea whether a prong (a.k.a. pinch collar) causes pain.  My knuckles firmly rapped, it seemed the only solution would be for me to open my mind and wear a prong collar.

prongFor those unfamiliar with the product, these come in a variety of styles.  Some look scary with spikes and “prongs” of metal.  Newer models hide the “teeth” of the prong collar under a strip of leather, plastic or fabric.  I use the word “teeth” very deliberately, because proponents of these products claim that the spikes of a prong replicate a mother dog’s teeth as she corrects a misbehaving pup.

I do know how to fit a prong collar, and I know how to use one.  I am a crossover trainer, meaning that I have used physical…

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Puppy progress (Siggy)

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Siggy is a black, Golden Doodle, 27 weeks old.      photo: J. Renzoni

Siggy has reached, 6 months,  50#s, has grown up teeth, has had a tussle with Reggie (Jack Russell) and been told off by Jazzie (heeler) and Max (shepherd). Getting to be a big boy. His jumping ability is prodigious, his speed is considerable. He’s visited the horses several times and shows reasonable care about it, although I wasn’t on-board with the last tour. His own efforts at becoming a hunter/gatherer, he’s captured and dispatched a vole and climbed into the compost bin and fetched an orange peel out of it (it’s now more thoroughly covered).

He likes carrying large things … boxes, throw rugs, branches and jumping up on things … gates, raised garden beds and perches of any kind.

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photo: J. Renzoni

All of the training we began with has grown, changed, adjusted with his needs and the differences he is showing now. But much of it is just a rule we continue to do each time … like sitting at doorways or at gateways to be released on through. His training is a game of choices … he makes the right choice and gets rewarded – for laying down, heeling, going to crate, fetching, tricks, settling on dog bed, coming … etc. I just counted about 25 cues, plus there’s a bunch of things we’re working on that aren’t named yet. Training comes in layers, in stages – one piece of learning makes it possible for the next piece. And if the foundation isn’t solid, neither are the next steps. Each piece, if played with, approached from many angles becomes better and better understood.  For example: sit … if you teach it at doors, from standing, from you sitting, from lying down, in the middle of tug or before and after, beside you, in all locations … then it becomes a clearly understood cue.

The same thing is important about recalls. With his added speed, confidence and capabilities comes the increased need to practice different levels of recalls … distance recalls on walks, recalls away from other dogs or people and recalls away from fun things he likes. However, if the basic games of coming here when there isn’t distance, when there are hardly any distractions haven’t been done … then now would not be the time to test it and fail.

The recall games begin close, begin with lots of quickly given rewards, begin with fun, but without distraction and without a likelihood of failure.

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Photo: J. Renzoni

Now, with Siggy, I know how good his recall is, so I know when to ask and I know when not to ask. We’re getting to the point of a really brilliant recall, at all times. Now, for us, is the time to find out when it will fail, and use that to clarify expectations.

So many things he’s been taught, building on up. Training certainly isn’t done … actually never done, but he’s becoming a great dog.

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Photo: J. Renzoni

He’s been my demo puppy for two classes, in a couple of weeks we’ll start the third class he’ll be involved in. He goes as a sidelines pup to agility classes (I use it as training time with active dog distractions going on).

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photo: J. Renzoni

One puppy kindergarten class with 6 sessions is just not enough…whatever kind of dog you have. It’s a great beginning, but would you be prepared for life with only the info you got in kindergarten?

This week is Westminster Dog Show, I never went to Westminster, but I did do dog showing back in the 1990s, obedience and conformation. And I know most people don’t even consider doing competition, but one of the things competition teaches is how much effort is needed to get to the level of being able to do things really well as a team (dog/person).

I think we all want to be able to do things with our dogs … in order to set that up there needs to be clarity and understanding on the part of the dog, and the person needs to know the dog’s likes, preferences, fears and strengths and play to those. We can change things for the better, it takes a persistent, fun, building-layers effort.

Don’t stop, when you’ve just begun…

New Puppy – Great Beginings

IMG_6813Three months ago I got a new puppy. I named him Signal, Siggy … Freud … Sig and he’s great! Fast learner. Active. Agile. Motion attraction. Amazing bounce … and likes pretty much everything.

Would he be a good choice for everybody? For sure not, probably too fast a learner, too active, too agile, too likely to chase things and too much bounce.

What kind of criteria do you have for choosing a new pup? How well have you followed it in practice? Do you have certain things you plan on doing with your dog? How have your last dogs been? What didn’t work for you? These are all questions worth answering before getting a new pup.a

Just like in training or planning anything I had my ‘have to haves’ and my ‘likes, but not necessary.’ My needs included a medium large dog (aiming for 50-65#), people and dog social (before I have had more aloof dogs and they suit me, but maybe not my dog training class atmosphere). Excellent conformation, score well on puppy temperament test and I had a handful of breeds that would be likely good choices. The parents should be excellent examples of their breed and consistent with what I was wanting. I preferred a non-black dog … but only because I do photos and videos and black is hard to see details, expressions or even body parts sometimes.

IMG_6834abSo he’s all black. Rich, very black, black. He’s a doodle, which hits the people and dog social, and size range. I’ve known his mom, an AKC registered, 45#, standard poodle named Ruby, since she was a couple of months old.

Five months, the age where most people think … “whew, potty trained, better start doing some other training.” If you’re in that group I do have a dog basic obedience class coming up in January. Sig will be going … he’ll be my demo pup. Reportedly the other pups in his litter are kinda wild. I’m not surprised since active, quick and agile pups tend to get that way if they aren’t handled skillfully. We were visiting the vet clinic yesterday afternoon to put up flyers and practice puppy skills and Sig is the calmest one they’ve seen.

Which is nice to hear about ‘the dog trainer’s pup.’

But, you know, that’s not really true. What’s true is he’s had practice and knows what is expected and so he can be calm. Clarity produces confidence. He’s still very much a puppy. His mask of self-assurance and self-control can crumble if over-faced.

He has been in puppy kindergarten, he goes weekly to agility as a ring-side spectator, we do errand runs to town and practice what he knows in all sorts of parking lots and I do training sessions with him a minimum of three times daily (three meals … three opportunities to train). Yesterday I started the process of going inside dog friendly establishments because the more practice he gets, the better he’ll be. The other reason I was waiting to enter public buildings is he has nervous or submissive urination and I wanted to be sure we had that under control before stressing him.

I’ve come to the conclusion that nervous pee-ers are a lot like scared pups. Oh, body language is very different, but they need less eye contact, less verbal interaction, and no, or minimal, touch from unknown people.

Sig is cute and waggy. He looks very inviting and people want to come up and grab both sides of his face and cuddle. That’s way too much! Even if I tell them just one hand, just brief … they don’t seem able to listen.

So I just say no and block them. I don’t need random strangers creating bad rehearsals for my pup. I want good rehearsals. This temporary problem isn’t going to become a lifelong habit.

Both places we went into yesterday … were great.  Dry floors.  Of course, I did potty breaks before entering (an empty bladder is less likely to leak under stress). And anyone longingly staring, we just moved on and ignored.

Even the best choices of puppy are going to come with issues … I didn’t mention that we’re working on stopping the mouthing, and the jumping and the picking up everything reachable and…IMG_6881

 

Dog Emotions

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Signal at 8 weeks. Photo by J. Renzoni.

Emotion drives learning, it drives action, change, and behaviors. There are some emotions that are the same behavior from the canine … these are core emotions.

Anger or Rage = snarls, bites, escape physical restraint. The lower level of this is frustration, which is sparked by mental restraint.

Fear = freeze or run away, when survival is threatened in any way.

Social attachment/panic from abandonment = separation calls, basically “come back, don’t leave me” in barking, whining and howling.

Seeking or Anticipation = animal moves forward, sniffing and exploring to make sense of the world around us. Seeking is also wanting something good, and looking forward to getting something good, and curiosity.

There are three more positive emotion systems identified: Lust – description not needed, Care – maternal love and care-taking, and Play – the roughhousing all young animals do which is a sign of good welfare, because a dog that is depressed, frightened or angry doesn’t play.

Max and Signal seeking.
Max and Signal seeking – Max knows what he’s looking for, Signal, not so much.                         Photo: J. Renzoni
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Signal has discovered the joys of horse apples. Photo: J. Renzoni

Rule of thumb: Don’t trigger anger/rage, fear and/or panic from abandonment if you can help it; do trigger – seeking and play.

Exception to the rule of thumb: Do trigger frustration as a way to train impulse control … ie., stay, wait at doors, gates, crates; and as a way to build resilience and tolerance to failures (willingness to keep trying when not understanding a training goal). So we do want dogs to understand that they need to wait to get something they like (freedom, toys, food, fun), and we also want them to keep trying to figure out what we want from them and not just give up and go find something else to do.

The risk is that frustration if too much becomes anger and rage.

Example:

Signal at 10 weeks. Many things are fun.
Signal at 10 weeks. Many things, including grass, are fun.      Photo: J. Renzoni
Smokey at 10 years.
Smokey at 10 years. Puppies might not be considered so fun.      Photo: J. Renzoni

I have a new puppy named Signal. He is ten weeks old, has wavy black hair, black nose and essentially black eyes. He would like to run after our cat, Smokey (10 years old, brown tabby, dog-wise). I have been preventing him, Smokey has been preventing him and sometimes his X-pen fence is preventing him.

This frustration has built up some bouncing and some barking and even a little dodging and weaving. Picture tail high, play bow with intermittent sideways puppy leaps. I am offering food when he’s quiet and looking, I’ve removed him from the scene, and I’ve distracted him, all to make sure the mental frustration doesn’t get too high. I want a pleasant relationship between the two of them.

The cat, has meowed, in an irritated way at him. No hissing or batting and I want to keep it that way, this pup seems like he’d escalate if that were to happen.

This morning when Smokey was doing his jumping routine for treats next to the X-pen. Signal got rewards timed to keep him occupied while Smokey did his thing and got rewarded for it. Soon the two will not think of each other as so novel.

Frustrating, yes. Leads to learning. Anger, no.

 

(To learn more about puppy training join the Puppy Kindergarten class, next one scheduled Oct 15th. See fb for more information).

 

 

Learning Zone – dogs

A stressed dog will not absorb training.

A stressed person will not absorb training.

If you and your dog are in your comfort zone, really in your comfort zone, you’re probably just repeating the habits, repeating the things that you’ve already learned, already done, many times before. That’s why they are comfortable. Same environment, same people/animals, same games, same, same…

Learning happening here? Not unless something changes.

Learning takes you out of your comfort zone, but not too far out of it. It should make you slightly nervous, somewhat frustrated … still you’re willing and in control.

So what happens if you hear/see a handler whose dog was being difficult and she’s proud because she showed him who is boss?

The somewhat stressed handler still felt she was in control, and she felt accomplished. But what about the stressed dog?

Photo by J. Renzoni
Photo by J. Renzoni

So the dog ended up in sympathetic nervous system (fight/flight) mode. What does that mean for the next time? Now does it become clear why it’s likely the same problem will be repeated? Why so many dogs trained in this way wash out …

Think about it.

 

Barking Help

Lot’s of you probably have had problems with your dog barking and the neighbors not being very generous about tolerating it. My daughter has just moved and her dog has decided, now in his second week there, he doesn’t like the situation very well. She, of course, has to work and so leaves him inside in his crate. She rents and has a fairly intolerant ‘pet agreement.’ So the situation is worrisome. Your situation will be different so different parts of this will be more important for you. Things that she is already using: Treat and Train remote reward and DAP collar. This is the email I sent to her.

Hi,
Thinking about you and Obie…

For him to be quiet and content; he needs to be comfortable, he needs to accept confinement and not expect that any vocalizations or actions will get him attention and there needs to be a cost of behavior penalty.
1. Food, Water, bathroom and exercise  (timing of main food so that potty breaks are needed at right times)
2. Value for being in crate (crate games). Rewards for quiet. No excited greetings or prolonged leaving.
3. Avoid back-chaining = “I bark complain, then be quiet, then get attention” — you know when this is happening as this would grow problem rather than decrease it — it’s a timing and a level of reward/attention issue
4. Multiple strategies to inform him of the cost of his behavior – penalties = no eye contact, freezing or turning away, not entering building if he’s barking, covering crate partially/completely, uncovering when he’s settled (note you don’t have to be stuck outside if you enter – don’t look, don’t talk and immediately cover crate and wait for a good settle) just like at the cottage.
5. Change exit strategy to avoid triggers or/and desensitize triggers (put on shoes, pick up stuff, run out to car at times random)

From what I saw when you were here and Obie did something you didn’t actually want repeated … your preferred response is early and somewhat excessive reward for initial small increment of desired behavior repeated multiple times (so the reward back chained to all the pieces). The first cycle of this is fine (mostly I would expect more and reward with lower key approval), the second cycle and subsequent cycles should wait for more and better and if you aren’t getting that add space but don’t lower the criteria and don’t over reward. He can/should improve at a much faster rate.

What we practiced was calmness, greater expectations and low-key reward (no or low verbals) when changing from undesired behavior to desired – because we don’t want excitement attached to the undesired actions.

My thoughts are that the problems you’re encountering now are mostly: #1 food/potty #3 back chaining

Love,

MOM

Easy Dog training is not so easy

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American Bulldog/Mastiff cross offering behavior – leash loose and handler ready to reward. Note observer (Bella), she’s the neighbor’s dog and she likes to watch classes. Photo by D. Renzoni

Easy and quick dog training is an oxymoron.

Quick knowledge, fast solution and nobody needs to learn anything, but the dog. Try it, what harm can it cause? Who cares about research?  Neighbor said it or multiple studies confirmed it… who wins? Well of course, the neighbor/cousin/friend does, in their random ‘expert’ mode. Science … what science?

Why? Science is all about theories and creating a study and checking. Neighbor/cousin/friend is all about absolute testimonial on a very limited scale (one dog, two dogs, an imaginary dog or a dog seen on video). But somehow people believe testimonials more and are willing to do and allow punishment as a first line of action. I do find that incredibly ugly.

 

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These guys are making great progress! But in general, we often miss the chances to reward the behaviors we like best, by being unobservant or preoccupied. Dogs learn how to get what they want  – jumping up, grabbing … stealing things because it works for them.

What does the science (lots of science) say … ‘Every living thing learns to improve its condition.’ Reward ensures that a behavior will be done more frequently in the future.  Yummy stuff in the garbage – tip it out and eat it (ding, ding, ding – big reward! Behavior will be repeated). Punishment will/can suppress/reduce a behavior. Punishment never creates new behavior (but it can increase fear, increase the punished behavior, anxiety, aggression, apathy and slow learning). Yell NO at dog as he grabs child’s Barbie doll, and dog may drop it and decide not to grab it in the future or… think that grabbing Barbie is one of the most exciting games ever. Other common event: puppy barks or bites and is sprayed with mouth freshener spray, and dog may stop and/or… become afraid of hands or spray sounds or certain scents or…

Learning is a complex topic, which probably is why so many are so confused about how to approach training, and which is also why so many end up training the opposite of what they wanted and then blaming the dog for being uncooperative or stupid and/or … blame themselves for being a bad dog trainer or lacking enough time to have a dog ….

The relationship between the person and their dog is a constant learning process. Given that this process, at least on the part of the person, takes place mostly at an unconscious level, the resulting picture is rarely how you imagine it.

If we think about, for example, walking on a leash it becomes quickly clear that reward and punishment are consistently connected. If the dog doesn’t react, starts sniffing, lunges forward, then most handlers will try pulling him forward or backward (this is positive , +, or aversive punishment). Hence not going forward or going forward too much is what is punished. If the dog walks better, then jerking or pulling are no longer used. This is a negative reward (rewarded by taking the pressure away).

What happens if the leash just stays tight? The dog is not rewarded, but punishment continues for his hard work when he feels pulling pressure on his neck. In this way the dog will become more and more numb to collar pressure, he is being punished continuously through the never-ending use of leash control.  Another confounding factor is the oppositional reflex (you pull, then I pull also, like tug-of-war). Then it is usually a case of ‘He likes to pull’ and so ‘has to have’ a prong collar or choke collar or harder jerks or a harness to save his neck.

Tension on the leash ensures continued pulling, but it also increases the risk of reactivity to dogs, etc.
Tension on the leash ensures continued pulling, but it also increases the risk of reactivity to dogs, etc. Fear of reactivity increases tension in the handler … a closed circle of events.
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Loose leash, attentive and relaxed dog … nice pair. Reactivity becomes unlikely.

This ignorance by handlers of the dog’s most basic learning behavior is what creates one of the greatest problems in having a dog and using a leash. Based on excessive attention given to hanging on to their dog, it is possible to overlook what is actually being told to the dog when walking on a leash.  The removal of pressure has everything to do with training and learning. The giving of a reward when the dog is in the position you want them to be has everything to do with learning.

People have such a hard time releasing pressure, that I often would rather not let them have a leash at all or use a hands-free leash, so they can’t pull on it while they are trying to train their dog where they want them to walk. It comes down to the human handler creating a habit for herself/himself and the dog. Sticking strictly to the rules so the learned behavior becomes the norm.

The flow of info between a dog and person is called communication. Most dogs are totally confused or begin to switch off, because they are getting contradictory signals. In the house these rules apply … sometimes, in the yard these rules apply … sometimes and the rules change daily. Recently a person told me she wanted to have a rule where her pup didn’t go into the kitchen, but currently his food/water are in the kitchen, and his gate keeps him in the kitchen when she leaves, hmm?

Dogs quit trying when there is no way to know what is expected. Symptoms of ‘switching off’ include; sniffing, zoomies, turning away, quickly leaving, not listening/’selective deafness’, no eye contact by the dog … etc.

To avoid this trap we must get used to handling our dog in a consistent way and build up our dog’s trust in our ability to control/offer rewards.

Only if you have a clear picture in your head can you decide whether a behavior is the one you want or not.

Imagine that you are learning something new and you are punished for every mistake you make … you will quickly give up trying to find out how to do it.  Goal:  No punishment when learning.

This game is 'can you put your feet on this?' Each thing, each effort the dog makes is rewarded, otherwise it is amazing how well they can avoid putting their feet on objects. Games like this build trust and build confidence for the important stuff.
This game is ‘can you put your feet on this?’ Each thing, each effort the dog makes is rewarded, otherwise it is amazing how well they can avoid putting their feet on objects. Games like this build trust and build confidence for the future important stuff.

Emotion memory. During training a dog doesn’t only learn the proper cues/commands, but he also memorizes the emotions connected with them. If you are using a lot of punishing actions/sounds, the dog will always recall these negative impressions when you signal or say these cues. From this point of view, its easy to see why many dogs have no motivation to work or learn new things from you. FYI video yourself training something new to check it out – most people use a lot of punishing actions or sounds (no, oh oh, disappointed tones and dog’s name …).

As far as possible, ignore the wrong answers and praise the right ones so that the “cues/commands” are not poisoned at an early stage with bad emotions. If you are having trouble with a cue like come or sit or the dog paying attention when you say his/her name, it is likely you have poisoned the cue – change to a new one and don’t poison this one.

When a dog does not recognize what you want he will try everything to find a solution … set it up so the right solution is likely to happen and wait …   Goal: Set it up and wait.

Divide the movement into small steps and your dog will learn more easily. These small learning steps will also help you to figure out any questions for your dog as simply as possible. Take time to think about it from your dog’s point of view.  Train individual cues one by one if possible (example a good retrieve includes a sit, stay, cued release, run out, pick up/solid hold, tight turn, speedy return at speed equal to the go out, release of item on cue from preferred position).

Easy dog training is not so easy. It takes thought and learned habits. If your neighbor/friend or even veterinarian suggests do ________  to your puppy because he barks or bites or doesn’t want to be restrained. Consider the situation from your pup’s point of view – has he been rewarded often for the preferred behavior? What is he likely to do if you follow the suggestion? Will he trust you more afterwords? In other words, will your relationship improve? What will you do if their suggestion makes the behavior worse because now your pup is more afraid, more anxious, more aggressive and less willing to learn things from you?

 

**note the details of learning are simplified for this blog … the theme of learning is a complex topic which includes significant terminology and concepts with various definitions.  See https://gentletouchdogtrainingblog.wordpress.com/2015/04/27/here-pup-pup-pup-come-whistle-beep/  for more

 

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